Intelligence Inside: Layers Of Printed Circuit Boards

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Printed circuit boards bring a lot of wonders not only on how electronic devices work, but also on how they support electric components in performing their respective functions. Some people may actually think that, because of the simple appearance of these boards, creating one is easy.

PCBHowever, contrary to their appearance, printed screen boards are even more complicated than the normal looking motherboard, because it involves different essential parts, each of which being crucial to the functionality of not only the board itself, but also the components and the device itself. A person who wants to know more about the PCB must also know how it is made and what materials are being used to create it.

Printed circuit boards are like lasagnas- they are formed with different materials which are layered alternatively and are placed or laminated together with heat so that the end product will be a single object. The materials used in each layer may vary depending on the type of electronic device they support and on the size of such device.
The following are the basic layers of printed circuit boards:

1. Substrate

This is the base material of printed circuit boards. Usually made of fiberglass, this part gives these boards thickness, rigidity, and form (making them suitable for use in some electronic devices, such as tablets). When looking at printed screen boards, the substrate is usually the base part. It is also the thickest and the heaviest of all the layers of these boards since it is the layer that supports all the other layers.

2. Copper layer

This is the layer laminated to the substrate, and this can be attached either on one or both sides of the substrate. This is the part where all the conduction and transmission of electric current occurs. This layer is responsible for the transmission of signals to the components attached onto these boards. Also, this layer may indicate how expensive the electronic device is. The more copper layers it has, the more expensive it is.

Another thing to take note is that it is this part, and not the substrate, that is used in multi-layer boards. For instance, if a person is talking about a six-layer board, it means that such board has six copper layers, not six substrates.

3. Solder mask

This layer on top of the copper layer gives these boards the green color (or any other color, depending on the manufacturer). When electronic devices such as computers are opened, boards with green-colored surfaces have solder masks. This layer is placed on top of the copper layer to insulate the latter from contact with other metals and conductive bits. Because of its insulating capability, solder masks are where the traces of connections are drawn, and when they are overlaid on the copper layer, the copper traces appear.

4. Silkscreen

This is the white layer on top of the solder mask. This layer adds numbers, letters, and symbols to the printed screen boards so that people can easily assemble these boards. Of course, the silkscreen layer also emphasizes important details regarding proper board assembly.


A person who is well-experienced in handling printed circuit boards may label more layers and more parts. Nevertheless, it is essential to know these basic layers (as well as the electronic devices on which they are attached) because in troubleshooting boards, these layers are the ones being checked and repaired, along with the components that are attached to them. Understanding these boards means understanding how each layer works, and how these layers coordinate their efforts to produce that unique kind of intelligence associated with electronics.

The Uses of Custom Patches

Posted on Posted in Product

Wearing fashionable and well-designed clothes is significant to many people. In fact, many consider fashion as a way to express them. Transforming simple clothes into fancier ones continue to gain favor among people. Some choose beads, pearls, and additional decorative materials, while some people choose embroidered patches.

It is unusual that we do not see customized embroidered or iron-on patches these days.  Custom patches have become a trend and a top choice for different causes or movements. People can now avail of the custom patches they desire, with unlimited possibilities of how these will look and feel. Each design is unique depending on the taste of the customers. Moreover, these can be accessible almost anywhere in the world, most especially at

What exactly are custom patches?

These are usually embroidered or iron-on to a shirt, uniform, cap, or any other fabric materials. They have a long, rich history dating back to the 1800’s when thread stitching was born. In this article, we from will list down the many functions of custom patches in the modern times.

Custom Patch

Embroidered patches are used in the army. In fact, the initial usage of these patches was the British Army’s decision to sew these onto the uniforms of their soldiers. Patches that represent rank and unit are usually sewn at the sleeves of military uniforms and ones that signify merits and awards are sewn on the chest part. The former is very useful in military operations.

The US military adopted this practice during the Civil War and today, soldiers all around the globe have at least a patch sewn to their uniforms. Additionally, police officers also have these patches.

Moreover, different organizations such as the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts use these custom patches when celebrating special events. Moreover, these patches are called “badges” and are awarded for the scouts’ achievements. To the troops, badges are something to aim for because these somehow define what they can do as individual troopers. Several patches also signify the ranks in troops. For example, a patch can differentiate a Senior Girl Scout from a Star Scout and a Senior Boy Scout from an Eagle Scout.

Additionally, many companies around the world have their personal uniforms and company logos converted to custom patches that they can easily attach to their uniforms. This application goes the same way with schools and universities. Moreover, different sports teams are known to have their team logos embroidered on their caps, varsity jackets, and uniforms. Custom patches add a touch of identity.

We from can provide freedom and flexibility in personalization of embroidered and iron-on patches.

Moreover, custom patches can also be great souvenirs for other special events

Custom PatchesThis serves not only as a memorabilia, but also as a promotional item. This is a great way to promote social causes and awareness movements. Since these patches can be easily sewn onto almost anything that has fabric in it, promotions have never been easier than now.

Additionally, a memento of the event can give the attendees’ the idea to come back if ever another one is organized in town. This is like hitting two birds in on stone for a very affordable price.

Lastly, custom patches pave way for good business opportunities. Since they have many functions, many business-minded folks are enticed to invest in these. In fact, many movies like Harry Potter, Hunger Games, and more have created merchandises with customized patches on them. From t-shirts to caps, the list goes on. Musicians and bands also opt to promote their music with the use of custom patches. There are unlimited opportunities to earn just by utilizing the trend of custom patches these days.

We from aim to give our customers only the best and high-quality custom patches. Moreover, our full customization feature enables customers to choose from different attachment methods such as Velcro, iron-on, and tape backing, as well as button loop. Additionally, customers can design what they want to have, including the color of the thread.

Lastly, with just a minimum purchase of 10 pieces, we offer the cheapest, most economical option for custom patches fit for the needs of the clients.

For more information, visit Be our partner in creating the next top design of custom patches around the world.

Essential Topics for Keynote Speakers

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Keynote speakers are the heart of any big gathering such as a convention or a conference.  Getting a keynote speaker is a challenge in itself.  Many companies have made the mistake of getting popular celebrities and other personalities and just bank on their good name.  However, this is not often very successful.  Many “popular” speakersride on the coattails of their celebrity status and are often ill-prepared and not able to connect to the audience.

This is an unfortunate fact because companies often invest a good amount of money in order to arouse unity and enthusiasm among their members. Excellent keynote speakers come prepared by knowing the topic or issue of interest that they will talk about.  They should also do considerable research on the organization and relate their speech according to the needs and interests of the audience.

The topic of the keynote speech is also very crucial to its success.  The topic has to be relevant and infused with the truth.  It has to come from extensive research and factual information. Effective speakers are very thorough in their preparation and will not stand in front of an audience not primed to surpass expectations.

Here are 5essential topics that keynote speakers usually address:
  1. Leadership

    Keynote SpeakersGreat leaders usually exercise undue influence over their team mates not because of skill, intelligence, or even personality, but because they have learned the skill of listening and valuing others.  Being a leader is a big challenge, and even more so in today’s diverse organizations.  Leaders also come in many different levels within the company.  It is not just top management who are leaders, but even members or employees who are considered on the lower end of the organizational chain are considered leaders as well.

  2. Change Management

    Organizational change is an issue that everyone is faced with.  Change is always a challenging thing, and this topic is a popular and essential keynote topic because change is always happening and we cannot avoid it or even get rid of it.  Since each organization is faced with different types of changes, it is good for keynote speakers to customize their talk on change management.  This can be done by conducting interview and giving our questionnaires.

  3. Customer Service

    Customers are the lifeblood of the business and the importance of customer satisfaction and loyalty cannot be undermined.  One popular topic for keynote addresses is best practices in making customers choose our products or services over the competition.

  4. Sales Management

    Sales managers and sales teams need a lot of motivation, knowledge and practical tips on how to deliver great results for their companies.  Many organizations request for a keynote address that delves into how to equip, manage and motivate sales teams and sales managers.

  5. Communication

    Many companies cite miscommunication as one key element why some perform far below expectations or some projects are not successful. Many industry leaders acknowledge that lack of communication or miscommunication is an issue that needs to be resolved within the company.  Effective keynote speakers address communication issues, especially the fact that communication must be used to achieve company goals and to effectively connect with co-workers.


Keynote Speaker With the diversity of clients that comes across our path, we make it a point to know exactly what their needs are and get to know their stories a little better.  It is impossible for Keynote Speaker Garrison Wynn to be as successful as he is and to get rave reviews every single time he speaks if he only talks about general topics during his keynote speeches.  The secret behind his success is that he knows how to research well.  He makes it a point to find out more about the organization and he customizes his speeches to address these needs accordingly.

In this way, he comes across as relevant and genuine, someone who is there to arouse passion, interest, and enthusiasm and induce the audience to action.  From government clients such as the US Navy, to big corporations and associations such as Royal Dutch Shell, American Express, Federal Express, Price, Water house, Coopers, and many more, they all say that Mr. Wynn blends humor, motivation, and a customized content.

To begin with, a representative from will get in touch with the company and will request them to fill out a pre-program questionnaire to give us a general overview of the company.  Garrison also does a conference call with company representatives and his staff will also conduct an extensive research on the industry.  Using this, they will piece together a perfect keynote address for the client company. This “perfect-fit” approach ensures the clients that Mr. Wynn values them and their needs, and guarantees a successful keynote address.  Most of the time, the intention of the company leaders are in perfect harmony with the keynote speech, and generates great response with the audience.


Author Bio

You want to hire keynote speakers, so motivational-speaker-success is one of the best places for you. For more details visit our website or contact to us.

Golf Irons Sets for your Golfing Needs

Posted on Posted in Shopping

A golf club is a tool used by golfers to strike the golf ball. A typical set of golf clubs in a players’ bag consists of 3 woods, seven irons, 1 hybrid and a putter. Golf iron sets usually consist of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 irons and a pitching wedge.

Irons differ from other clubs due to their club heads with deeper grooves that extend to the face from toe to heel and run parallel from top to bottom. The grooves help you control your shot by generating the spin on the golf ball.

Golf iron sets generally come in 6 to 8 individual irons numbered from 3 through 9 and a pitching wedge (PW). The number of the golf club indicates how high the shot it produces and how far the shot travels. The number corresponds to the angle of the loft. A higher number indicates a greater loft angle. A higher loft also means that the ball will fly higher but on a shorter distance. This is why irons are typically used when you are closer to the hole as the thin, small heads of irons help in producing a more accurate shot.

Golf Irons Sets
To help you choose the golf iron sets based on your skills, you should be aware of these basic iron types:
  • Maximum Game Improvement Irons – These are the so-called Cavity Back because they are designed to have a large hollow part at the back of the club head, which is known as cavity.  These iron types are ideal for beginners and those with 25 or higher handicaps. It is easier to hit and more forgiving because of their enlarged sole and top line.
  • Game Improvement Irons – These are the most popular golf iron sets. They have thinner and compact sole and top line with smaller cavity back. They are ideal for those with 5 to 25 handicap.
  • Player’s Irons – These are cavity muscle back or muscle back irons, also known as blade. These irons are mostly used by professionals and highly skilled golfers. They typically have no cavity and their back is flat, making them harder to use. However, when used properly, these irons offer better results and feel compared to a cavity back.
To help you choose further, you must know about the club components.
Golf Irons

Grip – This is the rubber cover at the topmost end of the shaft where you hold to or grip. It is identified according to the size of the player’s hand: Standard, Midsize, Jumbo or Oversize. This part of the club has one sole purpose, to let you effectively grip the club.

Shaft – This is the cylindrical piece of metal wherein the grip is attached to. Its length varies per design and comes in various flexes. Some clubs are stiffer or more flexible than the others. Golf clubs are labeled according to their flex and who are using them: S-stiff, X- extra stiff, R-Regular, L- ladies, A- amateur and S- Senior.

If you are not sure which flex suits you, contact Rockbottomgolf. They offer a variety of golf iron sets with different brands such as Adams, Cobra, Wilson and Taylor Made.

Hosel – This connects the shaft to the club head. It affects the lie angle of the club. You need your lie angle adjusted based on your arm length, swing style and height. You can choose from upright lie wherein the shaft is bent to increase the angle or flat when you need the angle decreased.

Club head – This part of the club is the one, which hits the ball. It affects the height and distance the ball will travel. This is the main feature of a club and usually the first thing that players look into. Club heads are designed according to the technology and design of each manufacturer. They are also designed based on the ability of the player. No matter what the design or technology is, they all have the same purpose – to hit the ball and strike it forward.

It is important to know these components as they all affect your success in the golf course. Rockbottomgolf covers all you golf club needs and they also provide great discounts on all brands.

The Emergence of Video as a Vital Tool in Online Marketing

Posted on Posted in Video Marketing

The emergence of video marketing is a breakthrough in online marketing and with it is a better opportunity for marketers to increase their profit.

As innovation advances, online video marketing is getting more popularity and creating a huge hit among online users while business entrepreneurs tailor them to the changing customer habits.  As social Video Marketingmedia users now prefer to spend more time viewing and seeing graphics and images over text-based alternatives, online marketing strategies had shifted to utilize them.

Videos used in marketing promos drives more traffic to the website and sometimes even go viral. YouTube alone have billions of audiences and it is forecasted that video marketing will advance its rampage this year to draw in more customers quickly.

Being involved in online marketing, you will be left out and will be losing a lot of opportunity for a bigger slice of the market if you are sluggish in conforming to this marketing trend.  It is apparent that video marketing is getting a big slice of the market pie and so are you if you adopt video marketing in your marketing campaigns.  Videos are positioned to control marketing techniques as the value of video marketing ends up with more apparent profitable results.

Facebook and other social media users are more attracted to videos posted on their sites and are inclined to spend a minimum of two minutes viewing at least one video before leaving.  If this video turned out to be amazing, they never fail re-sharing them to others or post some comments for interaction.

Videos also carry a certain promotional appeal that converts viewers to potential sales and profits for the marketer.  They are ideal for communicating your business promos to audiences, especially if the video is of exemplary quality.  Videos that are enjoyable, interesting and amusing are more effective in conveying information to viewers that they end up buying what you promote.

The audience will surely not be avoiding videos carrying vital points of business or brand and play through from beginning to completion prior to a vibrant call to action for the audience.

Engaging Videos for Lead Generation

To provide your audience with amusement and entertainment, it is important that you produce engaging videos that would draw in more crowds that have greater potential to be converted to sales.  Such engaging videos are sure to build you long lasting and strong client relationships to broaden your market and customer base.

Among the important objectives in developing a promotional marketing, the video is to guarantee an appropriate dissemination of crucial marketing information on the brand or business that you have.

A well-produced marketing video can go viral and can, therefore, affect a lot more potential customers besides the targeted specific niche markets. This will broaden the marketplace of your product or services and at the same time enhance your visibility.  All these will trigger higher market interest that will eventually result in greater earnings and sales.

Creating Dynamic Promotion Videos

Every video created by online marketers or business owners is intended to provide connection to the audience in the hope of enhancing marketplace presence and visibility for expected higher outputs in the form of sales.  Therefore, if you are one of them, you need to choose the ideal ropes in creating your video that can shed the finest light on your brand and business offers.

Promotional VideosWith the myriad videos and affordable as well as flexible devices in the market today, it is now quick and easy to indulge in video marketing.  As soon as you have set up your goal and develop a specific concept and design for your promotional campaign, you can easily produce your visual tool in online marketing by way of utilizing basic devices.

Your creative video needs to be amusing and intriguing with a clear focus and direction to prevent diversion that leads to unfruitfulness of your marketing campaign.

It is not expected that videos would end up as an essential online marketing tool.  But now that it has, start utilizing it to the maximum to your advantage.

Now, if you don’t have the skill and capacity to create an engaging video that conforms to Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Policy and guidelines, you can seek the assistance of some well-experienced consultants.

click here to learn more about reputable SEO firms before you lose marketing dollars with the wrong agency!





How to Become a Responsible Pet Owner

Posted on Posted in Pet Care

Pets require loving and attention from their owners. Even if some pets can thrive without human interaction, they still need your affection from time to time. You should be ready to attend to your pet’s needs. How can you become a great pet owner?


Keep your pet’s ideal weight.

Like humans, animals are prone to obesity or being underweight, too. Giving your pet unhealthy food such as sweets and food with high sodium content may result in overweight or obesity. On the other hand, if you do not let your pet eat an appropriately balanced meal, it may become underweight and sickly.

To determine your pet’s ideal weight, use the standard methods that veterinarians use. These methods include visual inspection and palpation. Alternatively, visit the vet clinic and have its weight checked. Keeping your pet’s ideal weight prolongs its life by almost two years.

Prepare your monthly budget.

Pets need food for nourishment, and shampoo and soap for cleanliness. It also needs a proper resting area. You assign its own sleeping space in the kitchen or anywhere in the house . These items entail spending money on their basic needs. Although some pets are low-maintenance, you still need to prepare a monthly budget on food and medication.

Regular checkup

A pet can still acquire diseases even though you clean it every day. It can get sick without any apparent reason or may be due to overeating and stress. To make sure your pet is free from any diseases, schedule a regular check-up with your vet. A healthy pet means longer life.

Spend quality time with your pet.

Like humans, your pet needs your attention. Spare a few hours every day to play with your pet, cuddle it and talk to it. Your pet may not be able to express gratitude through words but you can feel its gratefulness through its actions. Pets that are given attention by their owners are more docile and follow orders. You see, they may act as if they do not understand the words you speak but they could feel the intonation and “emotions” in your voice.

Understand your pet’s behavior.

We know that taking care of a pet requires effort, time and money. Before you adopt a pet, make sure you have read guidelines and tips on how to take care of it. Pets have the same mood swings and behavior. However, they still have behaviors that are unique to their breed and species. You can choose from a wide array of available resources. All you need to do is do your part. You can read books that specifically discuss the different ways of caring a particular pet. You may even join a forum discussion. Watch video tutorials. Join a pet club. Simply ask friends who own the same breed and species as your pet is.

Consider spaying or neutering your pet.

This applies if your pet is a cat or a dog. You do not have to consider spaying if you own one cat or dog. However, if you adopted a couple cat or dog, spaying is an option. Spaying is the process of removing some reproductive organs on female pets while neutering is removing the testes of the male pet.

Spaying or neutering prevents overpopulation of cats and dogs. We recommend that you consider this process if you own two or more cats or dogs. Millions of cats and dogs worldwide are becoming homeless because of irresponsible pet ownership. A lot of them die of hunger or diseases. Not only are they suffering the consequences but they may also affect the human population with unknown diseases.

Responsible pet ownership does not only mean adopting a stray dog or cat or any pet you might found in your backyard or in the neighborhood. It also includes taking care of their basic needs, allotting a monthly budget for their check-up, and sparing time to play and cuddle them. Owning pets require maturity because they also know how to react and feel pain. If you are not ready to do all of these tasks or are not mature enough, we suggest that do not own a pet. Save yourself and the pet the trouble.